The Lure of The Berkshires

Once off the Pike, it doesn’t take long to feel the lure of the Berkshires. Very quickly, the pace of things slows down, and big city life starts to feel far away.

What makes the Berkshires so special? Few places in New England can match its mix of nature, culture, good food, and relaxed vibes. In many ways, it’s a perfect place to unplug and unwind in a world apart.

Recumbent bike rider along the Ashuwillticook Rail Trail between Cheshire and Lanesborough
People relaxing on the front porch of the Red Lion Inn, our base in Stockbridge

Ashuwillticook Rail Trail: A Hidden Gem

It doesn’t take much to get off the beaten path in the Berkshires.

The Ashuwillticook Rail Trail is a beautiful bike path on an old freight line that passes by wetlands, a reservoir, a lake, and great views of the Hoosac mountain range. The highest point in Massachusetts, Mt. Greylock, is just northwest of here.

Nearly all of the roughly 14-mile route is flat, making for very easy biking. For long stretches, few other people are around as the trail passes through the rural towns of Adams, Cheshire, and Lanesborough on its way to its southern terminus in Pittsfield.

Pausing along the wetlands — a very active birding area — near the start of the bike path in Adams

The trail passes by several areas that MassAudubon considers to be birding “hotspots.” Among the more than 100 species spotted along the trail so far this year are bald eagles, ospreys, barred owls, and great blue herons, as well as dozens of less familiar waterfowl and songbirds.

A great blue heron landed briefly in the wetlands in Lanesborough before it flew off

Scenery all along the trail is great, with many spots overlooking tranquil waters and views of the Hoosac Range.

The view in Lanesborough back towards Mt. Greylock and several peaks in the the Hoosac Range

Studio E: A New Venue at Tanglewood

Amid all of the scenic beauty, there’s an amazing variety of cultural venues in the Berkshires.

A relatively recent addition to the Tanglewood campus — opened in 2019 — is Studio E. Part of a four-building cluster, Studio E is an intimate space for year-round concerts, lectures, and other special programs.

Studio E (center) is part of a cluster of buildings for year-round programs at Tanglewood

In the summer, Studio E hosts a series of free performances, when Fellows in advanced musical study at the Tanglewood Music Center can showcase their work. Here, two Fellows performed lovely art songs by Claude Debussy.

Fellows in advanced musical study performing selected Debussy songs at Studio E

Large-Scale Works at Mass MoCA

It can take many hours to tour the dozens of shows at Mass MoCA — and even then, it’s tough to see them all.

Housed in former factory buildings that once were the home of the Sprague Electric Company in North Adams, Mass MoCA makes great use of the spacious grounds and interiors.

Approach to the entrance at Mass MoCA
Many of the lightsome galleries at Mass MoCA have very high ceilings

One of the high points of the exhibits is a huge installation of large-scale wall drawings designed by Sol LeWitt. Mounted on nearly an acre of specially-built interior walls, the drawings will be on view through 2043.

A large-scale wall drawing inspired by LeWitt’s highly saturated color murals from 1995 to 2005

Though the drawings may seem simple in design, they’re actually quite complex. LeWitt wrote up instructions and made a general diagram for each drawing that he had in mind. Then, a team of 65 artists from several museums and schools came together in 2008 to carry out the site-specific renderings.

Each drawing required careful measurement and drafting yet allowed for many on-the-spot creative touches, making for unique works of art. A video accompanying the installations provides some fascinating glimpses of how the teams made the drawings.

Teams of senior artists, student interns, and local artists worked on the drawings
The teams doing the renderings could make some creative touches in the basic designs

LeWitt made half a dozen black and white “scribble drawings” near the end of his life. From afar, these drawings look like simple, solid, alternating rings of black and white — almost like a bullseye. But up close, it’s easy to see the optical illusion in these works — the varying density of the scribbles gives the impression of solid bands of black or plain white.

Taking a closer look at one of LeWitt’s black and white “scribble drawings”

Timely Show at the Norman Rockwell Museum

The Norman Rockwell Museum in Lenox always delivers a provocative surprise. In its temporary exhibits — which usually fill about half of the museum — the curators have a knack for staging excellent and highly engaging shows on controversial themes.

This summer, a large exhibit considers the history of racism in America. Through political cartoons, lithographs, drawings, oil paintings, posters, magazine ads, and even consumer product packaging, the show examines how illustration as an art form has either debunked or reinforced racial stereotypes in our society.

Several works for Harper’s Weekly by the cartoonist Thomas Nast are a key part of the show. Here, in an image published barely three weeks after the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, Nast conveys a sympathetic view of African American domestic life (center) surrounded by images from the devastation of slavery (lower left) to the future promise of paid work (lower right).

Thomas Nast cartoon for Harper’s Weekly, January 24, 1863

During the Harlem Renaissance period (roughly 1920 through the late-1940s), Miguel Covarrubias created lively celebrity caricatures for popular magazines. In this lithograph of a couple dancing the rumba by moonlight, Covarrubias made an image that was very popular but drew sharp criticism from the activist W.E.B. DuBois, who found it an offensive work that reinforced stereotypes.

“Rumba” by Miguel Covarrubias, 1942

During the Civil Rights Era, Norman Rockwell took a strong interest in illustrating matters of pressing social concern. Outraged by the 1964 murders of three young civil rights workers in Mississippi, Michael Schwermer, James Chaney, and Andrew Goodman, Rockwell painted an imagined tableau showing them facing their outside-the-frame murderers

“Murder in Mississippi” by Norman Rockwell, 1965

Interestingly, when Rockwell worked for 47 years at the Saturday Evening Post, he had to remove an African American from one of his illustrations — company policy had mandated that Blacks could only be shown in service industry jobs. Freed from such restrictions after moving to Look magazine in 1963, he adjusted his approach and became much more focused than ever before on civil rights and related issues.

Gardens and Outdoor Sculptures at The Mount

On top of her exceptional gifts as a writer of fiction, Edith Wharton had deep knowledge of design and architecture.

With architect Ogden Codman, Jr., she co-authored The Decoration of Houses, a highly influential book touting the values of proportion and symmetry that led to “a new American aesthetic” in home design.

In Italian Villas and Their Gardens, Wharton described her vision of gardens as elegant outdoor “rooms” that should complement a house and its surrounding landscape.

Molded grass “steps,” a rarity in America, sweeping past gardens up to the main house
A promenade of linden trees connects the Italian Garden and the French Flower Garden
Rectangular pool and fountain in the French Flower Garden

Wharton’s estate, known as The Mount, is also a perfect site for outdoor sculpture.

This year, for the eighth year in a row, SculptureNow curated a juried show of outdoor pieces blending in with the paths and woods on the property. The 30 installations this year reflect a wide variety of styles that connect to the surrounding landscape — much like the designs in Wharton’s gardens.

Here are several sculptures that were especially engaging — both as works of art and as thought pieces about how sculptures can “speak to” and inspire the people who see them.

“Flying Mountain” by Micajah Bienvenu
This little boy was captivated by “Imminence” by Mary Taylor
Photographing from inside the “A-Frame Bench” by Tomer Ben-Gal
“Cecilia” by Robin Tost (foreground), “Bone Furcurea Garden” by Miller Opie (background)

Reflecting on the Berkshires

Visits to the Berkshires always remind us that it’s much too easy to breeze past scenery or walk past works of art that don’t immediately grab our attention. But whenever we spend time in this beautiful and peaceful region, we find that our pace eases and the wider world seems to melt away.

Being in the Berkshires calls for slowing down, relaxing, and simply taking the time to be with nature and art. We can hardly wait until our next visit!

Fall’s Special Palette

The fall has its own special palette. As daylight grows shorter and temperatures edge down, the greens of summer start to go away. Slowly, the colors of fall begin to emerge — this year, that happened in the Boston area in early October.

Woods at Borderland State Park, Easton, MA, October 8, 2021.
Temperatures at night were still above freezing at this point in the season.

As autumn gets underway, trees start to prepare for winter by breaking down the green chlorophyll in their leaves and shifting nutrients to their trunks and roots. Soon, green pigments become less visible while red, yellow, and orange tones become more prominent.

Borderland State Park, Easton, MA, October 13, 2021

When soils become moist, as they did after periods of rain in mid-October, the greens of summer can recede even more while other colors — some brilliant, some surprisingly delicate — can surface before overnight frosts move in.

Close-up view of a Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata). In the spring, the male version of this tall
deciduous tree produces white flowers that hang down in thin tassels (catkins) at the end of the
branches. In the fall, the hickory leaves turn a brilliant scarlet red, while the catkins turn rusty
orange. Photo taken by the old Tisdale Homestead Site, Borderland State Park, Sharon, MA,

late-afternoon, October 18, 2021, after a few days of occasional rain.
Close-up view of a porcelainberry (ampelopsis brevipedunculata) vine, a pretty but highly invasive
exotic plant. Throughout the summer, the vine’s upward-facing white flowers and berries attract all
sorts of bees and wasps. But in the fall, the grape-like berries (not edible!) hang down and turn into
beautiful pastel colors. Photo taken by the old Tisdale Homestead Site, Borderland State Park,
Sharon, MA, mid-afternoon, October 13, 2021.
Stone Lodge covered by dropped pine needles on the shore of
Leach Pond, Borderland State Park, Easton, MA, October 18, 2021
Near the start of the Pond Walk, Borderland State Park, Easton, MA, October 31, 2021

Since the late-afternoon light is so low in the sky at this time of year, it can light up the foliage just before sunset in striking ways.

Sunlit cove, Leach Pond, Borderland State Park, Sharon, MA, late-afternoon, October 31, 2021
View of Leach Pond, Borderland State Park, Sharon, MA, just before sunset, October 31, 2021

Nature’s preparation for winter continues apace at Borderland in November. Plants that flower there through the summer, like milkweed, set their seed in early-November before going dormant for the winter.

Late-season milkweed along the Pond Walk, Borderland State Park, Easton, MA,
November 7, 2021. Butterflies and other pollinators are drawn to milkweed
in the summer. In the fall, ladybugs still find their way to the plants.

Other trees and shrubs continue to burst with color in the Boston area, despite the cool daytime temperatures and overnight frosts that become more in common in November.

Like Borderland, the Arnold Arboretum sits in a slightly warm (for Massachusetts) climate zone, which means that some of fall’s most vibrant foliage can be seen there even in late-November.

Boughs of Golden Larch (pinaceae pseudolarix amabilis, from China), Arnold Arboretum,
Jamaica Plain, MA, November 5, 2021. A member of the pine family, golden larch produces
seed-bearing cones each year. Unlike most conifers, however, golden larch are deciduous
and drop their leaves after their show of fall colors.
View from below of a Harlequin Glorybower (clerodendrum trichotomum, from South Korea),
Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, MA, November 5, 2021. This shrub produces jasmine-like
white flowers in late-summer, but then generates blue berries (not edible!)
surrounded by striking pinkish-red calyxes in the fall.
Close-up view of a Harlequin Glorybower (clerodendrum trichotomum, from South Korea),
Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, MA, November 5, 2021
White Enkianthus (ericaceae enkianthus perulatus, from Newton, MA),
Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, MA, November 23, 2021. In spring, this shrub produces
pretty white pendulous bells. In autumn, the entire shrub turns a gorgeous scarlet color.
Detail of White Enkianthus (ericaceae enkianthus perulatus, from Newton, MA),
Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, MA, November 23, 2021

As shorter days and cooler temperatures become the norm in mid-November, many trees in the Arboretum continue to drop their foliage. Still, leaves can stay in place there until well into December.

Trunk and canopy of a European Beech (fagus sylvatica ‘tortuosa’, from Kew, England),
Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, MA, November 23, 2021. With its twisted trunk, gnarled branches,
and spreading limbs, this tree is also known as a “Parasol Beech.” Metal supports help to keep this
specimen upright. Fewer than 1500 older specimens of this rare cultivar still exist in Europe.

In contrast, Central Massachusetts is in a cooler climate zone than the Boston area, with earlier frosts, stronger storms, and lower winter temperatures. Near Mt. Wachusett in the Worcester Hills, conditions can feel wintry, even in mid-November. Still, the subtle mid-autumn colors of meadows and foliage there can have their own sort of beauty.

View towards the North Meadow Trail, Wachusett Meadow
Wildlife Sanctuary, Princeton, MA, November 14, 2021
View towards the Wetlands Trail, Wachusett Meadow
Wildlife Sanctuary, Princeton, MA, November 14, 2021
Spring wildflower meadow, now dormant, next to the Beaver Bend Trail,
Wachusett Meadow Wildlife Sanctuary, Princeton, MA, November 14, 2021

Fall colors this year have been especially beautiful. Adequate summer rain, slightly warmer-than-usual temperatures in the fall, and slightly delayed frosts have pushed peak foliage time this year deeper into the season. The result has been a glorious palette of both vibrant and subtle colors lasting well into November — wonderful reminders of the beauty all around us.

Being with Nature in the Early Autumn on the Outer Cape

In the first few weeks of fall, shoulder season comes to Cape Cod. As the air turns slightly cooler in early October, the summer crowds thin out, traffic gets a little lighter, and the beach parking lots are mostly empty.

The Cape — especially the Outer Cape by the National Seashore — takes on a whole new rhythm at this time of year. The weather can be glorious, making it a perfect time to venture outdoors and simply “be” with nature.

We hiked among coastal heathlands, stands of pitch pine, rolling dunes, windblown grasses,
and a wide variety of hardy beach shrubs in the Pamet Area Trails network in Truro.

Even when the weather is less than ideal, it’s still possible to enjoy nature during the autumn shoulder season on the Outer Cape. Here are a few ideas.

Brisk Winds and a Surprise at Coast Guard Beach

Without the summer crowds, it’s a lot easier to get close to nature in the early fall.

At Coast Guard Beach in Eastham, for example, stiff winds were blowing out of the north as we approached the shore on an overcast, misty afternoon. Although the air was brisk, it was still invigorating.

Kitesurfer riding the heavy surf at Coast Guard Beach, Eastham

Once we got onto the beach, we saw a few hardy souls braving the winds and the misty weather. The surf was roaring and running strong along the entire length of the beach.

The view looking south on Coast Guard Beach, Eastham

As we kept walking south for about a mile along the broad strand known as the Great Beach, we came to the edge of the Nauset Marsh and turned inland. There, much to our surprise, we came upon a large colony of harbor seals.

Harbor seals on the shore of the Nauset Marsh, Eastham

Making sure not to rile up the seals, we kept about 150-200 feet away from them throughout our unplanned “visit.”

As they lolled around on the sand, some of the seals lifted themselves up to take a closer look at us — eye contact, even from a distance, didn’t seem to bother them. Later on, we learned that these seals also raise their rear fins in the air to help regulate their body temperature.

After about 20 minutes of marveling at them, we sensed that the seals were watching us as much as we were watching them. In fact, just as we were getting ready to head back, the seals sent out a “scout” to check us out a bit more closely.

Harbor seal about to climb back onto land as we were
heading back onto the Great Beach in Eastham

An interesting historical footnote: On November 9, 1620, the Mayflower made her landfall in the New World at what is now Coast Guard Beach. After getting caught in the shoals offshore, the ship turned northward to anchor in Provincetown Harbor two days later before finally landing in Plymouth.

Fort Hill and Views of the Nauset Marsh

When we came upon the colony of harbor seals, we were at the northern end of the Nauset Marsh. Late the next day, after two-plus days of wet weather finally broke, we went to another part of Eastham for some spectacular views out over the marsh from its inland side.

The Fort Hill trail is a fairly short (roughly 1.0 mile) loop walk around a small hill and an open field overlooking the ocean. From this height, it’s possible to look all the way back to the former Coast Guard Station above Coast Guard Beach, as well as out to the narrow passage from the marsh into the ocean. At this time of year, the late afternoon fall colors are especially striking.

The marsh spreads north all the way to the former
Coast Guard Station above Coast Guard Beach
These kayakers paused long enough to get a close-up view of
a great blue heron (top left) alighting from the marsh grass

The marsh is much more than a place of pretty views. It’s a vast (over two miles long from north to south and over a mile wide from east to west) and complex ecosystem that’s home to a rich variety of shorebirds, wading birds, migrating birds, and marine life.

A barrier beach — an extension of Nauset Beach in Orleans that’s known as the Nauset Spit — protects the marsh from ocean storm surges. Recreational fisherman cast their lines in the protected parts of the marsh, while commercial boats wind their way from Nauset Harbor out to the inlet and the open ocean.

Protected from storm surges by a barrier beach, the marsh
offers lots of opportunities for recreational fishing
Commercial fishing boats have to navigate the tides and
tricky currents from the marsh out to the open ocean

The acclaimed author and naturalist Henry Beston lived in a small cottage on the ocean’s edge of the marsh in the mid-1920s. There, he wrote his classic memoir about living alone with the elements, The Outermost House. His book is an ode to the ever-changing shape of the shore and “…the incomparable pageant of nature.” Although a storm in 1978 destroyed the relocated remnants of his original cottage, his book continues to inspire reverence for this special place.

Through the Truro Hills: the Pamet Area Trails

The Pamet Area Trail system packs a lot into a small area. Along the roughly five miles of hiking trails, there’s a surprising variety of landscapes, rare plants, and stunning vistas, with a bit of history tossed in, too.

The network begins across from a former Coast Guard station that, for years, has been an environmental education center and youth hostel.

View towards the longtime environmental education
center and youth hostel above Ballston Beach

In 1991, a hurricane slammed into this area, and seawater poured across Ballston Beach (the stretch of sand in the upper right of the photo) all the way through the Pamet River Valley to Cape Cod Bay. The flooding temporarily turned the Outer Cape into an island — even if it was only temporary, the breach was a reminder of how fragile the Cape is and how the forces of nature continually re-shape it.

As the trail heads out into the Truro Hills, it passes by coastal heathlands, rare plants, hardy beach shrubs, and stands of jack pine.

Trail heading into the Truro Hills

Plenty of wild cranberries grow alongside this section of the trail before it branches off to an old cranberry bog.

Wild cranberries alongside the trail

Since the spur trail to the bog is grown over, we decided to pass on the idea of hiking down to a one-time harvesting site. Still, it was interesting to read signboards describing how families of Cape Verdean immigrant laborers once lived in the Pamet River Valley in the late-1800s — they brought in and processed cranberries while staying in a “bog house” dorm next to the bog.

In some ways, the approach over the dunes to the main overlook above the ocean was the most dramatic spot on the trails. The brilliant blue sky only added to the drama.

Down on the broad beach, we were amazed to find that we were the only ones there — we couldn’t see other people in either direction.

Sand dunes on the Truro beaches

As we walked back to the trailhead, we didn’t realize that we were following a footpath once used by Wampanoag Native Americans. Also, in the early 1700s, European settlers turned that same path into a section of the main stage coach route between Boston and Provincetown.

Morris Island and Harding’s Beach

Since we had fond memories from many years ago of hiking at Morris Island in Chatham, we’d hoped to do the same on this trip. But we didn’t learn until we arrived in town that winter storms this year had badly eroded the bluffs above the trail, much of which is now under water.

Thanks to a great tip from the innkeeper at the B&B where we stayed, we shifted plans and did a long walk at Harding’s Beach in Chatham instead. Little did we know what a fun outing it would turn out to be, as we got close to lots of birds, sea animals — and fishermen.

To get to Harding’s Beach, we had to walk through the Buck’s Creek marshes that stay dry much of the time, especially at low tide. That gave us a chance to see some of the striking grasses and marine plants in the area.

Passing through the Buck’s Creek marshes
on the approach to Harding’s Beach
Low tide exposes brilliant marine plants in the
Buck’s Creek marshes behind Harding’s Beach

Taking a path through the dunes and onto the beach, we came across lots of pretty shorebirds. It surprised us that they let us stand so close to them.

Sanderlings scurry back and forth along the shore in search of food
brought in by the waves. Often alone, they sometimes forage in small groups.

Harding’s Beach faces Nantucket Sound, with sandbars just offshore. Big clusters of seaweed wash ashore at one end of the beach, and many kinds of shorebirds search for food amid the washed-up piles.

Pectoral sandpipers searching for food amid seaweed

In this same area, large numbers of horseshoe crabs come ashore to spawn in the spring — and since they need to shed their shells multiple times in their lives in order to grow, it’s common to find lots of molted horseshoe crab shells here in the early fall.

Molted horseshoe crab shells on Harding’s Beach

Anglers like to try their luck in the shallow waters off of Harding’s Beach. Though the people we spoke with that day didn’t catch any fish, they thought they might have better luck at dusk or in the early evening, when the nearby boat traffic would be much quieter.

Angler on Harding’s Beach
Angler heading home for the day

As the beach rounds the corner and turns into Oyster Pond, the jetty makes for a perfect spot to look across the channel towards Morris Island and back towards Chatham.

View from the jetty towards the channel in Oyster Pond

Chatham Fish Pier

The Chatham Fish Pier is a kind of “scene,” especially in the mid- to late-afternoon when fishing boats return to port for the day. As the fishermen unload their catches, onlookers watch from an observation deck on the dock, while seals swing by waiting for scraps of fish.

View from the Chatham Fish Pier
Seals waiting for “handouts” at the Chatham Fish Pier


To mark our 30th anniversary, we wanted to do something special and spend time in nature. By visiting the Outer Cape during the shoulder season, we got plenty of chances to do just that — often as the only people on a trail or a beach.

This visit also reminded us how fragile the Cape is — storms, ocean surges, wind, and erosion are constantly re-shaping the landscape, while plants, birds, and animals must continually adapt to new conditions.

Inspired by this trip, we plan to return in the spring to watch from the shore the annual migration of whales off the coast of Provincetown — hopefully the subject of a future post!

A Midsummer Road Trip to New Hampshire’s White Mountains

In the past, when we thought about “travel,” we tended to think about going to faraway places. But once the pandemic set in last year and we did so many nearby day trips, we rediscovered the many joys and surprises of local travel.

When we thought about our possible travels for this year, we decided to do road trips once a season within New England. In that spirit, here’s a post about our recent midsummer road trip to New Hampshire’s White Mountains, where it was easy to avoid crowds, even in the height of summer.

Getting Our Bearings

In many ways, the Pinkham Notch Visitor Center is a perfect base for exploring the White Mountains. Run by the Appalachian Mountain Club (AMC), the Center stocks all sorts of maps, food, and supplies. In addition, the helpful staff there know all about the trails in Pinkham Notch, some of which run up to the summit of Mt. Washington.

During our visits at the Center, we learned a lot about the AMC and its history. For instance, we had no idea that two MIT professors had co-founded the AMC in 1876. Evidently, they wanted fellow academics and others from Boston to form a group to share their love of the mountains.

From that humble start nearly 150 years ago, the AMC has become a dynamic organization that maintains trails and mountain huts for hikers, sponsors workshops, and collaborates with public and private partners on major conservation efforts throughout the Northeast.

Day Hikes in the National Forest

With over 1,200 miles of marked trails, the White Mountain National Forest has a bit of something for everyone. If you prefer easy hikes, summit ascents, or just about anything in between, you’re bound to find trails suited to your tastes and abilities there.

From the trailheads at the Pinkham Notch AMC Center, we tried four different day hikes. Here are a few highlights.

Crystal Cascades

Sharing the same steep trail that eventually goes to the summit of Mt. Washington, the climb to the Crystal Cascades waterfall is a great hike — and workout!

Rising steadily and quickly behind the Pinkham Notch AMC Center, the trail reaches a small plateau after about one-third of a mile and crosses a wooden bridge below the falls — just a preview of the main event.

Beyond that, the trail begins to climb steeply once again until it reaches a stone staircase that goes up to a rock wall. Standing there, one can get a head-on view of the main part of the falls.

Officially, the Crystal Cascades is a 100-foot high waterfall in two segments — an upper “horsetail” roughly 70 feet in height and a lower section that’s roughly a 30-foot “block.”

Luckily for us, we visited the falls after several days of rain. So, the cascades were running briskly, and the pools below them were full.

It was easy to be taken with the sights and sounds of the roaring falls. Feeling energized by that, we continued hiking for another half mile up the steep and rocky trail before we headed back down to the trailhead.

Lowes Bald Spot

Another great climb — this time, up to 270-degree views at the summit — rises behind the Pinkham Notch AMC Center to the top of Lowes Bald Spot.

For most of the way, the trail follows the Old Jackson Road, the original path that ran from the Town of Jackson up to the summit of Mt. Washington.

After a couple of scrambles up steep ledges just below Lowes Bald Spot, the trail levels off and opens up to views in three directions. Here’s a lovely view to the east of the summit.

The peaks of Mt. Adams (left) and Mt. Madison (right), two of the eleven “Presidential Range” mountains, form part of a glacial cirque (a natural amphitheater created by a retreating glacier) to the west of the “bald spot.”

Looking north from the top of Lowes Bald Spot, one gets to look into the Great Gulf Wilderness, a large area of undeveloped land.

Square Ledge Trail

The little-traveled trail up to Square Ledge starts at a swamp with a small beaver dam and moves up steeply from there through a birch forest and past rocky ledges.

On the overcast morning when we hiked there, we had the trail mostly to ourselves.

Just below the summit, as the sun started to break through the clouds, we crossed paths with a couple from Germany who were rock climbing the face of Hangover Rock, one of the ledge walls.

The jolly man belaying rope from below for his wife scaling the rock face above told us that he “fell in love with the mountains” at Berchtesgaden National Park in Germany. We spoke with him for quite a while about his passion for rock climbing and our respective travels in Europe.

Long Pond

As the Ellis River flows south from near the Pinkham Notch AMC Center, it picks up steam and empties out into Long Pond. All along the way, the river is very shallow, with some minor patches of exposed gravel here and there. By walking out on the gravel at one bend in the river, we felt like we actually were standing in the middle of the stream.

With few other hikers around, we took our time circling some of the older trees by the river and admiring the outflow of the river into the pond.

The White Mountains in Maine

Officially, the borders of the White Mountain National Forest extend into western Maine, an area with a 200-year history of mining and quarrying.

Since the 1820s, adventurers and other explorers in this part of Maine have dug into rocks and opened mines as they looked for all sorts of minerals, metals, and gemstones. In the process, they’ve helped mining and quarrying become important parts of the state’s economy.

Maine Mineral and Gem Museum

When a married couple from Massachusetts, Mary McFadden and Larry Stifler, began to buy and preserve land in western Maine in the 1970s, they didn’t envision helping to preserve the state’s rich mining history as well. But as they created trails and protected open spaces, they learned a lot about mining in Maine and started collecting Maine minerals and gems.

As philanthropists committed to education, McFadden and Stifler wanted to inform the public about the area’s mining industry. To that end, and working with many local community partners for more than a decade, they designed and opened the Maine Mineral and Gem Museum (MMGM) in Bethel in 2019.

The museum features several well-designed galleries that teach visitors all about earth science and the special geology of Maine. In addition, the MMGM has an extensive collection of asteroid and meteorite fragments, like this rare lunar meteorite.

Finally — and perhaps most notably — the MMGM is home to the five heaviest moon rocks in the world. According to museum officials, those rocks are weightier than any held by NASA, the Smithsonian, Harvard, or any number of science museums.

On a rainy mid-week day, we got timed tickets to the quiet MMGM, browsed the exhibits, absorbed what lessons we could, and held pieces of the moon in our hands.

Mount Washington Cog Railway

Thanks to the vision and entrepreneurial spirit of a colorful character from the 1800s, Sylvester Marsh, visitors to the White Mountains today can ride on a cog railway that climbs to the summit of Mt. Washington, the highest peak in the Northeast.

After Marsh nearly died in a severe storm while hiking up to the Mt. Washington summit in 1857, he decided to find “some easier and safer ascension” of the mountain that could benefit tourists.

A wealthy man from Chicago, he spent the better part of the decade after his near-death experience securing permission to build the cog railway, designing it, recruiting investors (mostly, “railroad men”), recruiting engineers and laborers, testing it, and launching it to much acclaim in 1869.

Today, a dedicated team of engineers, conductors, rail inspectors (they hike the entire length of the railway every day checking for cracks in rails or other safety issues), and locomotive mechanics who maintain existing trains and build new ones — from scratch — on site, tourists can enjoy the fruits of Marsh’s dream.

Often, weather at the summit of Mt. Washington differs completely from the weather at the base station. While it was partly sunny when we started out, and we still could see well into the distance on the ride to the summit, cold and blustery winds brought in fog and clouds soon after we arrived up top, limiting the visibility to very short distances.

On the ride down from the summit, rain gave way to partly cloudy skies, and we soon got some nice views of the landscape just above the treeline, where rocks and alpine scree gradually give way to more forested slopes on the way down.

Mount Washington Hotel

Since we were “in the neighborhood” anyway (about eight miles away), we visited the Omni Mount Washington Hotel after our ride on the cog railway.

The over-the-top scale of the complex — built in 1900-1902 by Joseph Stickney, a New Hampshire native who had made a fortune in the coal industry and who brought to the U.S. 250 Italian artisans to build it — is nothing short of stunning.


As we hiked and roamed around the White Mountains, we learned a lot about local history and the many visionaries and risk takers who left their marks on this sparsely settled region of rugged beauty. The daring and dreaming of these conservationists and entrepreneurs — about which we knew very little before our road trip there — added a completely unexpected perspective to our visit.

We’ve already begun to look forward to our return trip there sooner than later.

A Glorious Spring

In many ways, this has been a glorious spring.

After a cool and damp month of March, the weather turned cool and dry from April through mid-May. In the meantime, buds bloomed gradually, while trees leafed out much more slowly than usual.

White Magnolia Tree
Detail of a Magnolia “Elizabeth” Tree, Arnold Arboretum

By mid-May, as the air began to turn slightly warmer, the spring still unfolded slowly. That made it a perfect time to be outdoors and see an amazing mix of shapes, textures, and colors all around.

Close-up of a budding Pinkshell Azalea, Arnold Arboretum

In hindsight, this spring has been one of the loveliest we’ve had in a long time. In this post, we explore a few favorite spots near Boston for strolling or hiking in the spring.

Arnold Arboretum

It’s hard to think of a better place to be with the spring than the Arnold Arboretum. As its website states, the Arboretum is “…a museum of trees teaching the world about plants.” Spread over nearly 300 acres, the collection features thousands of native, rare, or unusual specimens.

One of our favorite walking paths at the Arboretum is the mulched Chinese Path that climbs up to Bussey Hill.

In the early spring, the scents of fragrant shrubs like Mountain Witch Alder or Brouwer’s Beauty Andromeda fill the air with their delicate perfumes.

Detail of a Mountain Witch Alder, Arnold Arboretum
Detail of a Brouwer’s Beauty Andromeda, Arnold Arboretum

Old growth shade trees tower over this path, creating lovely dappled light effects. The soft surface of the mulch underfoot adds to the peace and serenity of this secluded trail.

Elsewhere in the Arboretum, another favorite strolling spot for us is in the section closest to Forest Hills. There, varieties of flowering trees and rose bushes surround a trio of small ponds. Weeping cherries are especially pretty at this time of year.

Nearby, along the so-called North Tract of the Arboretum, many unusual flowering trees and shrubs border a great meadow of native plants.  It’s always fun to see the varieties of Redbuds in bloom there, with their colorful blossoms popping out of tree trunks.


Also in this area, there are lots of showy Azalea bushes, like this Flame Azalea with its striking form and color.


Finally, another quiet spot for strolling in the Arboretum is the mulched Oak Path. Running along a lower flank of Bussey Hill, the Oak Path is a very peaceful and less traveled trail. Although small clusters of wildflowers pop up beside it, the real treat of this path — aside from its soft walking surface — is the close-up views it offers of many stately old growth trees.


Borderland State Park

Once the estate of an acclaimed suffragist and her botanist husband, Borderland became a state park in 1971.  Since then, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts has managed it as an historic property and nature preserve.

With over 20 miles of hiking trails that pass by small ponds, old dams, birding areas, and a small farm, Borderland is a great place for a workout or for communing with nature.

The Pond Walk, a three-mile loop around several ponds, is a major hiking trail at Borderland. Local farmers harvest hay from the field on the left twice a season, while this entire stretch of the trail is a great birding area in the spring.

Instead of staying on the main part of the Pond Walk, we often branch off at a small opening in the farm fence.  There, a mowed path follows the edge of the hayfield — we call it the “Perimeter Walk” — and we usually are the only people on it.

Sandi on the mowed path behind the Smith Farm House and hayfield.

This area is one of our favorites in the park for birding.  In late-April and early-May, as we passed by the hayfield, we often came across tree swallows with stunning iridescent blue markings.

A Tree Swallow atop a fence by the hayfield at Smith Farm.

Especially before the trees fully leafed out, we saw all sorts of birds during our walks at Borderland.  Among the more common “visitors” at that time were Canadian Geese and their newborn goslings.


The spring migration also brought Redwing Blackbirds, Catbirds, Goldfinches, Barn Swallows, several varieties of ducks, and Blue Herons to Borderland.  Other species like this Eastern Towee were less familiar but no less stunning.


Borderland is also a great place to get close — but not too close! — to assorted fauna, like snapping turtles.


Finally, there are many viewing spots by the park’s ponds where you can watch birds or, in this case, mating swans.


Blue Hills Reservation

Much as we love to hike at Borderland, we really love to hike in the Blue Hills.  The challenge of hiking on such rocky and uneven terrain makes for a great physical — and mental — workout.

After trying many different trails in the Blue Hills over the years, we’ve figured out a moderately difficult route that’s become our favorite.  The woodland hike climbs up, around, and then up — steeply — to the rocky summit of Buck Hill.

From the top, there are superb 360-degree views out to Boston Harbor, over the entire South Shore, and all the way up to New Hampshire.

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The final approach to the rocky summit of Buck Hill.


The view from the summit of Buck Hill towards the South Shore.

Growing conditions are surprisingly harsh on top of Buck Hill.  Scrub brush, stunted trees, and a few hardy shrubs find a home in the rocky soil there.

Close-up of a hardy shrub in bloom just below the Buck Hill summit.

On a hike in mid-May, we stumbled on beautiful Lady Slipper’s Orchids in three different places on the hike up to Buck Hill.  Since we’d never seen even one of these rare plants in the wild before, it was a real treat to find three of them half-hidden just off the woodland trail.

Lady’s Slipper Orchids like this are relatively rare. They’re tough to pollinate — while they contain pollen, they don’t contain nectar. So, bees tend not to spend much time trying to feed on them and, in turn, spread their seeds.

We discovered one other surprise this spring on the descent from the Buck Hill summit.

Near the bottom of a rock “staircase” heading down from the summit, we somehow hadn’t noticed this unusual boulder on our many previous hikes.  But on one of our walks this spring, we suddenly saw it differently — an abstract version of a human face.



This has been a very lovely spring. Especially after a year of hunkering down during the pandemic, the glorious weather has been a welcome delight.

Our many walks and hikes this season have been thoroughly transporting, as they’ve put us in touch with some very pretty scenery and so many different flora and birds. They’ve also been a great reminder of how important it is to be open to surprises, look closely, and truly “see” our natural surroundings.

Land and Heritage: Visiting Ireland’s Southwest Coast

Our two-week sojourn along Ireland’s Atlantic coast was all about land and heritage.

As we explored the southwestern part of the country — from County Kerry to County Clare — we saw an amazing variety of landforms: rugged sea cliffs, windswept beaches, limestone mountains, fertile farms, chains of lakes, hidden valleys, and beautifully austere barrens. The area also is home to dozens of ancient and medieval ruins.

While traveling only about 100 miles (as the crow flies) from Kerry in the south to Clare in the north, progress was slow. Not only did we have to drive a five-speed standard on the left side of the road, but we also had to navigate many narrow local routes, like this two-way road along the coast.


County Kerry — The Dingle Peninsula

Our meanders brought us to many beautiful spots like this area along Slea Head Drive on the Dingle Peninsula in Kerry. There, the southwesterly winds bring in lots of rain from the Atlantic, and vivid grasslands slope down toward dramatic sea cliffs.


Off-road, there were many stretches like this along Slea Head Drive — viewing spots above the building surf and rugged coast. Unusually, the area in the foreground of this particular image is a sinkhole, with a hidden sea cave forming beneath the plateau.


A fascinating ethnographic museum in the village of Dunquin tells the story of the Blasket Islands just off of the Dingle Peninsula.


Not populated since 1953, the islands once were home to a small but hardy community of subsistence fishermen and farmers who relished island life. The islanders had rich oral traditions, folklore, and customs, and several of them became famous as authors and storytellers whose Irish language tales have been translated into many languages.

From the museum in Dunquin, there’s a beautiful, four-mile cliff walk past wildflower-covered turf and limestone outcrops.


Dunquin Cliff Walk

Of special note: much of the film Ryan’s Daughter was shot in this village in 1969-70, and the cliff walk passes by ruins from the film set, including a “schoolhouse” built for the movie.


Eventually, that same path dips down by the water, with great views of nearby islands.


County Kerry — Killarney National Park

Killarney National Park, one of Ireland’s six national parks, has a great mix of hiking trails and biking paths along three glacial lakes ringed by mountains, old growth trees, limestone caves, and occasional ruins.

Just outside the hotel where we stayed in the park, we could visit the ruins of a castle from the 1200s that command the site of a small nearby peninsula.


On one of our outings in the park, we took a natural history boat ride from the Dundag Boat House on the shores of Lake Muckross. Until we boarded, we had no idea that the boat skipper — amazingly! — was born in Boston in the 1960s and grew up in Upham’s Corner in Dorchester.


The skipper’s parents lived in Boston for nine years, returning to Ireland in 1972 after they were disillusioned by “all the turmoil of the ‘60s there.” His story reminded us of others we heard during our trip about the many close ties between this part of Ireland and the United States — ties that go back to well before the Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s.

The ride brought us to the part of the park where three lakes come together, the area known as the Meeting of the Waters. The Old Weir Bridge with its twin arches spans the gap between two of the lakes and is believed to date to the 1500s, perhaps even earlier.

Meeting of the Waters

The ride also gave us great close-up views of limestone caves being formed by erosion.


County Kerry — The Black Valley

Just outside of the national park, the Black Valley is sometimes thought of as a hidden valley, as it sits away from more touristed areas.  Of special note: it was the last part of Ireland to receive electric service in 1976.

The local guide who showed us around the area, George Jackson of Dingle Darkroom, is a delightful free spirit and professional photographer with a passion for teaching people how to make strong photos in off-the-beaten path places that he’s found along the Atlantic Coast.


We spent quite a while with George in the Black Valley, which we never would have found on our own.  It’s a remote area of scattered small farms and glacial lakes, surrounded by rugged mountains.


We learned from George that, given how remote the valley is, local farmers receive government subsidies to raise sheep and till the hardscrabble soil there.

Perhaps not surprisingly, the barely-settled valley has some isolated ruins that speak to the difficult lives of small farmers who lived there in the past.

Black Valley Ruin

In quiet parts of the valley, we crossed paths several times with sheep as they grazed on grass and searched for food.

SAG and Sheep

County Clare — The Burren

Before we went to the Burren, a guest at a hotel in Killarney warned us that “the Burren is barren.”  While some people may think of it that way, we thought that it had a rugged kind of beauty that was distinctly different from the other areas we visited on the trip.

Much of the topsoil in the Burren has eroded away over time — partly due to nature, but mainly due to over-farming and over-grazing.  As a result, the underlying limestone is exposed in many places, like here at Black Head, creating what’s called “limestone pavement.”


The Burren is one of the few places in the world where Arctic-Alpine and Mediterranean plants grow near one another. Also, the warmth in the “grykes” — the spaces in between the limestone pavements — can support even fragile plant life. For these reasons, some people call the Burren “the land of the fertile rock.”

Burren Gryke 2

In the Burren National Park, a loop trail goes through some old farmland and looks out to Mullaghmore, a major outcropping of limestone that’s the highest point in the park.

Burren NP

After hiking on our own, we had the pleasure of touring part of the park with Tony Kirby, a local guide with an encyclopedic knowledge of history, botany, poetry, and more.


As we walked around, Tony told us about human settlements in the area going back thousands of years, dating to the late Bronze Age.

Even some of the freestanding drystone walls in the area are hundreds, or thousands, of years old — it’s amazing that they’ve lasted all that time without mortar or cement holding them together.

Depending on the location, the walls mark the boundaries of land once tilled by struggling tenant farmers, the one-time wildlife “parks” where wealthy gentry once hunted game, former pilgrim sites or small churches once managed by monastic orders, or other forms of divided land. In that sense, the Burren landscape “tells many stories” of power and inequality that might not be so obvious at first glance.

Wall in the Burren

Before we left the Burren, we made a point of visiting some local ruins. Perhaps the most impressive one was the portal tomb at Poulnabrone, which contains the remains of more than 30 people from several thousand years ago.  The rock balancing on the stone pillars weighs over 1.5 tons.  Scholars say that this is arguably the best-preserved ancient tomb of its kind in all of Ireland.


Reflecting on Our Trip

As much as we enjoyed hiking and biking amid a variety of landforms, we also marveled at southwestern Ireland’s rich cultural heritage. Humans have left behind traces of their homes and communities in this region for thousands of years: communal tombs, pagan religious sites, stone forts, medieval churches, old stone walls, and more.

In hindsight, we didn’t anticipate how much we would enjoy experiencing and learning about Ireland’s southwest coast. Its distinctive blend of natural, cultural, and historical features — not to mention its warm and friendly people and its relaxed way of life — were thoroughly enticing. As you may have guessed, we’re already figuring out how and when to set up a return trip there!





Traditional Culture, Timeless Vistas in Eastern Switzerland

Switzerland is home to dozens of villages that have barely changed over time.  When you enter these small towns, modern life seems to melt away.  Instead, you feel like you’re in another century.

On our recent trip to eastern Switzerland, we visited two villages that – in different ways – have held onto their traditions and cultural heritage.  Here we’ll share a few glimpses of the local life that we especially enjoyed.


Of the two villages we visited, Appenzell is the more colorful one.  Much of its center dates back to the Middle Ages and is listed as an official Swiss heritage site of national significance.


For many years, it’s been customary to paint the exterior of buildings there with elaborate drawings and designs.  For instance, the featured image at the top of this post shows murals on the facade of the hotel where we stayed, the Hotel Säntis.  Here are several more examples from around the village.

Another longstanding tradition is the annual parade of cows.  At the end of the summer, local farmers wear traditional costumes and escort their herds down from higher pastures to their winter quarters near town.  Luckily, we saw several of these processions, to our great delight.

We even saw cows parading right through the middle of the village center.  One of the waiters at our hotel said, “this is ordinary for us – cows are part of our lives.”


Rural life has inspired all sorts of musical traditions in this area.  Yodeling, of course, is one of them.  But dairy farmers also use an assortment of whoops, yells, and other melodic calls to keep their cows in check.

When we were in town, we attended several folk music performances by locals.  Part of what made them so special is that the performers dressed in traditional costumes: white shirt with suspenders, a dangling earring worn in the right ear, and even special ruffled socks.

Enzian Chorus

What we didn’t know until later on is that some of the musicians practiced what’s called “coin rolling.”  Basically, each singer rolls a five-franc coin around the inside of a deep earthenware bowl.  The resulting sounds are meant to mimic the sounds of distant cowbells.  In combination with four-part harmonized yodeling, this type of Swiss Alpine music has been very popular over the last century.

We also saw groups of people in Appenzell burst into beautiful songs while they ate outdoors or as part of a special street fair.

IMG_0631Appenzell Street Chorus

Finally, we were lucky to catch an annual Middle Ages festival when local townspeople dress up in period clothing and turn the village center into a colorful street fair.



In contrast to Appenzell, which has held onto its historic center, much of the center of Arosa, the second village we visited, now caters to the ski crowd – lifts, shops, and restaurants are largely geared toward winter visitors.


Even though it’s become known as a ski village, there’s still lots of great vernacular architecture in Arosa.


This church, for example, dates back to 1492-1493, and is still used for weddings and summer concerts today.


Other local chalets date back to the 1700s or call to mind the longstanding tradition of making handmade cheese in Arosa.


The hotel where we stayed has been an inn since 1911, and the same family has run it since 1955.  The current third-generation owner was born in Arosa, and he’s one of only three remaining independent hotel owners in the village.  He and his wife are very proud of their family-run inn.

To honor tradition, the hotel serves a special fondue dinner once every week.


From this cozy inn in the original part of the village, we enjoyed fabulous views right outside our bathroom window and balcony!


As this photo suggests, Arosa is a great hiking base – its lifts connect to dozens of miles of hiking trails with gorgeous views in every direction.

During our stay, we enjoyed some thoroughly transporting hikes – often, we were the only ones on the trails.


Finally, like in Appenzell, farming is a major local industry in Arosa.  Here, too, we got to see herds of cows with clanging bells returning down from the high pastures.


Inspiration for the Future

More than on other trips we’ve taken, we got to experience traditional ways of life in Appenzell and Arosa.  It was fascinating to be in such peaceful places where people have held onto their heritage so strongly.  The rhythms and routines in both of these villages drew us in and took us out of our daily routines.  Going forward, we’re going to seek out more places like them, far from the hyper-busyness of the modern world.

Continue reading “Traditional Culture, Timeless Vistas in Eastern Switzerland”

Glimpses of Portugal at a Possible Tipping Point

The past never feels far away in Portugal.  From its two biggest cities, Lisbon and Porto, to its hundreds of hilltop towns and medieval villages, it’s a country whose ancient history, traditional culture, and complex heritage continue to have a strong hold on the present.

Most of our recent journey to Portugal took place in the northern and central parts of the country — mainly in the cities of Porto and Coimbra and in the countryside east of there.

Before we left for Portugal, we knew that the northern part of the country was mountainous, but we didn’t fully appreciate how hilly it is — it’s a dramatically rolling landscape of rugged slopes, small farms, olive groves, and vineyards set amid small towns and scattered villages.

Vineyard, fruit trees, and olive groves at Quinta da Pacheca, Lamego

We spent several days visiting the world’s oldest demarcated wine producing area (designated in 1756), the UNESCO-listed Alto Douro Wine Region, which is located in this part of Portugal.  Small landholders have produced wine there for over 2,000 years.  Vintners today produce many excellent wines with traditional methods.  Because of the rugged terrain, even the larger wine producing estates tend to harvest their grapes by hand, not by machine.

Slopes with terraced vineyards in the Douro Valley, opposite Pinhão

Hillside vineyard on the road to the village of Favaios

Though the grape harvest wasn’t yet in full swing during our visit, we did get to see some old-fashioned, behind-the-scenes activity up close.

Tractor hauling a load of hand-picked grapes, Favaios

Crushing grapes the traditional way, Quinta da Pacheca, Lamego

Another feature of traditional life in North-Central Portugal is the large number of medieval towns in the area, many with intact walls and atmospheric historic districts.

Two of the most impressive towns that we visited were Guarda and Trancoso.  Both of these towns had narrow, cobblestone streets flanked by densely packed houses going back to the Middle Ages.

Entrance to the Guarda historical center via one of the three medieval gates still in use

The 15th Century granite pillory in Trancoso was the site of public executions there

In Trancoso, many buildings still have coded markings where so-called crypto-Jews — people who were forced to convert to Catholicism after the Inquisition but secretly practiced their Judaism in their homes — once lived.  Some people theorize that the crypto-Jews put the markings on their homes to show their “allegiance” to their “new” faith.

Crypto-Jews’ markings on a building in Trancoso

After the fall of the Salazar-founded dictatorship in 1974 (more below), religious laws nearly 500 years old gradually disappeared, and more and more crypto-Jews — still practicing their Judaism secretly — began to observe their Jewish faith more openly.  A community of about 100 Jews opened a synagogue in nearby Belmonte in 1996 and — with the support of the municipal government — launched a Jewish study and cultural center in Trancoso in 2012.

We also saw some of the most extensive Roman ruins on the Iberian Peninsula.  At Conimbriga, which had been a Roman settlement for over 500 years, residents put up a massive wall in the 5th Century to try and ward off invading Swabian tribes (they didn’t keep the invaders away, and the Roman Empire fell apart not long thereafter).

Archway, Roman ruins at Conimbriga

We had the good fortune to meet many fine people in this part of the country — at the inns where we stayed, at small local museums, or even when we least expected it.

In Serra da Estrela Natural Park, we took a long hike down hundreds of feet through a large chestnut tree forest and then climbed up just as steeply to what we thought would be a waterfall (it’s only a swimming hole in the low-water flow months of summer).

Hike above the mountain village of Lapa dos Dinheiros, Serra da Estrela Natural Park

There, a chatty man who had been born in a small village about 10 miles away greeted us and struck up a conversation.


Over the course of the next hour, he recalled that “people had oxen 40 years ago” in his village, and he spoke with obvious disdain about today’s politicians who “just want to build roads and knock down buildings and put up new developments.”  The problem, he said, is that “many people equate heritage with poverty, and it’s difficult to fight that ideology.”

In addition to visiting the countryside and several medieval towns, we spent nearly a week in the cities of Porto, Coimbra, and Lisbon.

View of Ribeira neighborhood of Porto

Porto, the country’s second largest city, has seen a boom in tourism since the end of the Great Recession.  Though swarming with visitors on the Sunday when we went there, it still was of great architectural interest, with atmospheric side streets and a main train station covered with traditional azulejos (ceramic blue tiles).

Azulejos-lined walls of the main train station in Porto

Coimbra, a smaller and much more mellow city, is home to the oldest and most prestigious university in Portugal, founded in 1290 and relocated to Coimbra in 1537.

17th Century clock tower above Paço das Escolas, University of Coimbra

The university features UNESCO-listed architecture, a world-renowned library, and  student music groups known as “tunas.”  The tuna tradition goes back to the Middle Ages.  Today, students wear black cloaks, play period instruments, sing serenades, and perform lively step dances in university courtyards and elsewhere in the historic district.

“Phartuna,” performing songs and dances in the historic district of Coimbra

We stayed at an historic inn in Coimbra with a storied past dating back to the 1300s.  There, we spoke with the inn’s sommelier, João, who showed us the hotel’s wine cellar and talked with us about his training and his aspirations.

IMG_9957 - Version 2
João, a sommelier, showing us his wine cellar

Much as he likes most hand-crafted European wines, João is a very big fan of multi-varietal “experimental” wines from California and New Zealand.  For that reason, he thinks a lot about working abroad someday to learn more about non-traditional production methods and styles of wine making.

Finally, we spent several transporting days in Lisbon, where we visited cafes and walked around some of the city’s oldest and most off-the-beaten path neighborhoods, including the Mouraria, birthplace of the uniquely Portuguese form of music known as fado.

Stairway in the Mouraria neighborhood, home to many immigrants

Cafe in the Mouraria neighborhood

We also visited several small museums that offered fascinating insights into the history and culture of Lisbon.  The most compelling one was the Aljube (“deep hole” in Arabic) Museum that pays tribute to those who resisted the dictatorship of Salazar (who was in power as prime minister from 1932 to 1968) and (until 1974) his successors.

Exterior shot, Aljube Museum

Wall panel from the Aljube Museum

In hindsight, we thoroughly enjoyed our trip to Portugal — we hiked amid some beautiful scenery, enjoyed fabulous food and wine, learned a great deal about Portuguese history, and met many local people who spoke very openly and very eloquently about the difficult challenges the country is facing today.

Even while we were there, we felt like we might be witnessing Portugal at a critical tipping point.  Especially compared to our previous trip there in 2009, mass tourism (e.g., 500 large cruise boats docked in Lisbon this summer) seems to be threatening much that is unique and special about the country.  We heard from several people that the pressure to draw in tourists — and their spending — is very real.  Especially in Lisbon and Porto, the country may already be reaching its limits to growth.

Tourists snapping photos of the Ascensor da Bica (Bica funicular)

Very soon, Portugal will need to decide how to reconcile the ongoing tensions between its past and its future.  As a woman we met in the Douro Valley said, if the current trends of mass tourism and growing gentrification continue unchecked, Portugal will lose its way, “and we’ll have to market ourselves as frauds.”

Still, we hope to go back to Portugal someday — it’s a ruggedly beautiful and fascinating country — to connect with its people and its rich yet complicated history.

Along the Ribeira waterfront, Porto


Exploring Italy’s Northwestern Corner

The Valle d’Aosta (Aosta Valley) in Italy’s northwestern corner feels like a world apart. Wedged in between France and Switzerland, it’s a ruggedly beautiful area of high peaks, glaciers, and waterfalls set above small towns and remote villages — a hiker’s paradise — that’s also home to a distinctive multilingual culture and deep-rooted traditions.


The massif surrounding Monte Bianco (or Mont Blanc), Europe’s highest mountain (elevation: 15,781 feet), dominates the western end of this sparsely populated region.  On the Italian side, Courmayeur is the largest town in the area (population: 2,870).

The massif is enormous, an uninterrupted chain of peaks that’s over 29 miles long, up to 12 miles wide, and over two miles high.  To put it in perspective: long distance trekkers hiking the Tour du Monte Bianco trail typically take 10-12 days or even longer to complete the full circuit around it.

Our base in this part of the Valle d’Aosta, Entrèves, is a tiny enclave on the outskirts of Courmayeur that’s in the shadow of Monte Banco.  Part of what makes Entrèves so special is its cluster of cobblestoned streets and slate-roofed stone houses.

Street scene in the village of Entrèves, with Monte Bianco in the background.


Like the rest of the village, the charming inn where we stayed had a traditional slate roof, as well as a museum-like interior brimming with oil paintings, carved wood doors, alpine furniture, and a lovely formal dining room.

The main dining room of the inn where we stayed in Entrèves.


Preparing a cheese plate in Entrèves (note the traditional style of dress).  Locally produced cheese — organic and incredibly flavorful — is a staple of the regional diet.


From Entrèves, we did some terrific day hikes up into the mountains, on sections of the long-distance Tour du Monte Bianco trail, and alongside some beautiful glacier-fed rivers.

The steep trail up to Refugio Elena, a mountain hut near the Italian-French-Swiss border.


The view towards Combal in the Val Veny.


Three glacial lakes at Lac Miage in the Val Veny.


Panorama views from Punta Helbronner (elevation: 11,371 feet) in Val Ferret.


The trail below the rapidly receding Prè de Bar Glacier, Val Ferret.


Each of these hikes gave us a whole new perspective on the power of water to shape an alpine landscape.

We also spent time halfway between Entrèves and Turin in the southern part of the Valle d’Aosta.  There, our base was the village of Cogne (population: 1,439), a hub for hiking in the Gran Paradiso National Park.

A view of Cogne from the trail above the village of Gimillan.


Though the town may have been busier and more commercial than Entrèves, the hotel where we stayed was full of charm and the traditions of local life.  The rustic but nicely furnished rooms were a counterpoint to the much more elegant dining room with its white tablecloths, silver tableware, and wait service wearing traditional clothing from Cogne.

Our charming room in Cogne.


The elegant dining room in Cogne, where we enjoyed all kinds of local cheese, honey (dandelion or alpine flowers), bread, wine, produce, and freshwater fish.


Food and wine are focal points at this inn.  A circular kitchen garden out back supplies (literally) locally sourced vegetables and herbs for all of the hotel’s dining rooms, regionally produced cheeses ripen in a traditional cheese cellar, and a wine cellar holds over 1,400 bottles of wine, many produced in pesticide-free vineyards.

Outside our window, the inn’s chefs picked fresh vegetables and herbs every day from a large kitchen garden out back.


They used the herbs to season the restaurant’s artfully presented food.


Even more than in Entrèves, we caught glimpses of local life through some of the people we met in Cogne.

Rino Billin, the sommelier at the inn, completed a six-year course of study learning about wines.  His father and brother are also in the hospitality business.   He insisted on bringing us down to the hotel’s wine cellar, which he has carefully curated into a collection worth well over $2 million.


At the Cooperativa Les Dentellières lacemaking shop in the village, we spoke in French with one of the 40 women who’s a member of the traditional cooperative.


As she demonstrated how to weave thread around spindles and bobbins at a lightning-fast pace, she spoke about learning to do bobbin-lace work as a very young girl, how the tradition is passed down from mother to daughter, and how weaving is now second nature to her.


“C’est ma passion,” she said very matter-of-factly as she explained how she could work so quickly by hand and from memory

As we returned to town from a long hike one day, we crossed paths with an elderly French-speaking woman from the nearby mountain village of Moline.  After she complimented Sandi’s outfit, she talked to us about her two cows, which she seemed to be escorting on a late afternoon stroll.


“C’est ma passion,” she said with a bit of a shrug — the same phrase that the lace maker had used the day before to describe her work with lace.

From our fantastic location in Cogne, we had great views of glaciers and hiked by remote settlements in Italy’s first national park, the one-time hunting reserve of the King of Italy.

Our favorite picnic spot facing the Gran Paradiso Massif.


At Pont de l’Erfaulet on the trail from Valnontey.


On each of these hikes, we passed several remote settlements and small farms that were classic examples of vernacular architecture.

An isolated small farm at Tchezeu, about 1,000 feet above the village of Gimillan — itself about 1,000 feet above the valley floor in Cogne.


The hamlet of Vermiana near Valnontey.


An alpage (small dairy farm) near Valnontey.


In addition to hiking in the mountains, we spent four days in Turin, the largest nearby major city (population: 870,702) that’s about an hour south of the Valle d’Aosta.

Turin’s history as a city dates back to ancient times — there are impressive Roman ruins in the historic center, where some of the streets still follow the grid laid out over 1,900 years ago — and it’s filled with many other reminders of its storied past.

In many ways, Turin’s heyday was as a seat of political power.  It was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy that stretched from parts of modern France into parts of modern Italy between 1416 and 1860, when it became (for four years) the first capital of the newly-unified Italian state.  The city is still home to many grand squares and lovely palaces from that era.

Piazza San Carlo, arguably Turin’s prettiest square, was laid out as a parade ground and public market in the 1500s.  Its harmonious look took shape in the mid-1600s.


Piazza Castello became a more formal square with porticoed buildings in the late-1500s.  The former royal palace and the temporarily closed pavilion housing the Shroud of Turin are nearby.


Though it’s a city of small-scale buildings usually no more than four or five stories high, Turin had the then-tallest building in the world in the late-1800s, the Mole Antonelliana (“mole” in Italian means “a building of monumental proportions,” and Antonelli was the leading architect on the project).

Originally designed to be a synagogue (Jews wanted to celebrate gaining full civil rights in 1848), the Mole became a very different project as Antonelli kept making major — and very expensive — changes to his initial plan.  Eventually, the city had to take over the project due to the constant cost overruns.


Today, the building houses a museum of cinema, some offices, and some restaurants, as well as a rooftop observation deck.

In many ways, the Mole is the iconic symbol of Turin.  Local artists enjoy adding its image to all sorts of humorous designs and street art.


Some people refer to Turin as Italy’s Detroit — FIAT, the country’s biggest auto manufacturer, is still based there, as is much of the nation’s automotive industry.

Before World War II, Turin was an even bigger industrial hub, home to major assembly lines and hundreds of small manufacturers connected to the automotive industry.  In the 1930s, under orders from Mussolini, many of those plants were converted into weapons manufacturing firms, only to became major targets of allied bombing runs during the war — roughly 40% of the city was destroyed by aerial bombing between 1940 and 1945, and about half of the population fled to the countryside at the height of the war to avoid the nearly-constant bombardment.

This exhibit in the Museo Nazionale dell’Automobile (The National Automobile Museum) features two icons of Turin — a red Fiat and the Mole Antonelliana — placed on a floor map showing the locations of hundreds of small automotive manufacturing shops in pre-war Turin.


At the Museo della Resistenza (“Resistance Museum”), the excellent displays tell a ground-level story of the rigors of civilian life in wartime Turin.  The museum features a fascinating mix of exhibits and archives focusing on the city under bombardment, the German occupation, the Italian Resistance movement, and the return of democracy.

The museum’s curator, Francesca, spoke with Sandi about her grandfather, a one-time Fascist who switched over to the partisans’ side when the partisans gained control of Turin on September 8, 1943.  Francesca’s grandfather was sent to a nearby detention center, where he eventually died in custody.  His story has inspired Francesca to dedicate her own life to raising awareness of the city’s history and promoting freedom and tolerance through art.


While Turin rebuilt fairly quickly after 1945, the consolidation and shrinking of the car industry starting in the early-1970s led to major population losses — the city still has about 200,000 fewer residents than it did at its peak in 1971 — and with many empty buildings, there’s a bit of a hollowed-out quality to the city.  Even so, and even if we didn’t fall completely in love with it, we still enjoyed learning about Turin’s rich history and its prominent place in Italian affairs.


People sometimes ask us why we go back to Europe so often.  The answer is very simple: we keep finding quiet corners like northwestern Italy where we can hike amid majestic scenery, enjoy excellent food and charming lodging, learn a little history, sample local color, and experience interesting bits of urban life.  The challenge now — as always — is figuring out the next destination.


An Ocean State Getaway

Rhode Island — “The Ocean State” — is deeply connected to the sea.  It not only boasts a pretty coastline featuring dunes and cliffs and long, flat beaches, but it also carries on with a maritime heritage that, in the Colonial era, was bound up in the Atlantic slave trade.  We got glimpses of its great natural beauty and its more complicated colonial past during a recent five-day trip there in honor of Sandi’s birthday.

We spent our Ocean State vacation around Narragansett Bay in an area of small farms, sheltered harbors, and rural islands.  Wherever we went, the ocean never felt far away.


Our base during the vacation, the lovely Mount Hope Farm in Bristol, sits between Mount Hope Bay and Narragansett Bay and is part of a national historic site run by a non-profit organization.  Volunteers from the local community tend to the farm’s gardens and help to maintain the property’s buildings that date back to the 1700s.



The farm also features a community garden that supplies fresh produce for Bristol’s food pantry and a summer camp that teaches local children about caring for the farm’s pheasants, goats, and other barnyard animals.




Amid some glorious weather, we hiked, watched lots of birds, hung out at local beaches, and did a great bike ride during our five-day stay.

Our favorite hiking spot was at the Sachuset Point National Wildlife Refuge, which features an easy 3-mile loop trail along a rocky coast.  We liked it so much there on the first day of our trip that we went back for another hike on a second day.





The coastal area around Sachuset Point is on a major bird migration route.  We saw quite a few shorebirds on our walks at the Refuge and explored several of the trails at the nearby Norman Bird Sanctuary in Middletown.


Another lovely beach in the area is the Nature Conservancy’s Goosewing Beach Preserve in Little Compton — it abuts a long walking beach (South Shore Beach) that doesn’t show up on most maps, but we heard about it through word of mouth.



We did some fabulous biking at Colt State Park, where nicely-designed trails pass by some pretty tidal marshes, lots of stone walls and bridges, and a handsome stone barn.



After our visit, we learned some of the intriguing backstory behind the creation of Colt State Park.

The original owners of the property, the DeWolf family of Bristol, were infamous for flouting Rhode Island law and continuing to carry on with the slave trade even after the state had outlawed it.

Decades later, Samuel P. Colt, a grandson of George DeWolf, began the long term project of assembling parcels of land that eventually became the park.  In so doing, he helped to restore at least some of his extended family’s tarnished name.

In a walking tour of colonial Newport, we learned even more about the influence of the slave trade on Rhode Island’s early history.


Rhode Island merchants played a leading role in the infamous “triangle trade” between America, Africa, and the Caribbean during the 1700s and 1800s.

The scheme went like this.  Rhode Islanders manufactured rum — Newport alone had six distilleries — which they would ship to Africa and sell or trade for slaves.  In turn, they would transport the slaves to the Caribbean or to the southern colonies, where the slaves would be sold or traded for sugar cane.  The Rhode Islanders would then fill their boats with sugar to make more rum from molasses back home and start the cycle once again.

The slave trade was the number one financial activity for Rhode Island from 1720 to 1807.

On a very different note, we also visited the historic Touro Synagogue in Newport.  Built in 1763, it is the oldest synagogue building still standing in the United States and the oldest surviving synagogue building in all of North America.


In many ways, the Touro Synagogue is a testament to the (relative) religious tolerance in Rhode Island during the early Colonial period.  Thanks largely to the colony’s founder, Roger Williams, who had a then-revolutionary belief in the separation of church and state, Jews could settle there, own and operate businesses, and buy property — a virtually unheard of level of freedom found anywhere in the world at the time.

Today, the synagogue remains an active house of worship, with approximately 105 member families.

Finally, we wrapped up our day in Newport with a celebratory dinner in honor of Sandi’s birthday — a great capstone to a fun and fascinating getaway!